The role of indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase in regulating host immunity to leishmania infection

Levi H Makala

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pathogen persistence in immune-competent hosts represents an immunological paradox. Increasing evidence suggests that some pathogens, such as, Leishmania major (L. major) have evolved strategies and mechanisms that actively suppress host adaptive immunity. If this notion is correct conventional vaccination therapies may be ineffective in enhancing host immunity, unless natural processes that suppress host immunity are also targeted therapeutically. The key problem is that the basis of pathogen persistence in immune-competent individuals is unknown, despite decades of intense research. This fact, coupled with poor health care and a dearth of effective treatments means that these diseases will remain a scourge on humans unless a better understanding of why the immune system tolerates such infections emerges from research. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been shown to act as a molecular switch regulating host responses, and IDO inhibitor drugs shown to possess potential in enhancing host immunity to established leishmania infections. It is hoped that this review will help stimulate and help generate critical new knowledge pertaining to the IDO mechanism and how to exploit it to suppress T cell mediated immunity, thus offer an innovative approach to studying the basis of chronic leishmania infection in mice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5
JournalJournal of Biomedical Science
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 10 2012

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Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase
Leishmania
Pathogens
Immunity
Infection
Leishmania major
T-cells
Immune system
Adaptive Immunity
Health care
Research
Innate Immunity
Cellular Immunity
Immune System
Vaccination
Switches
Delivery of Health Care
T-Lymphocytes
Therapeutics
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • 1-methyl-d-tryptophan
  • Host Immunity
  • Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
  • Leishimania major
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Mice
  • draining lymph node
  • plasmacytoid dendritic cell
  • regulatory T cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

The role of indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase in regulating host immunity to leishmania infection. / Makala, Levi H.

In: Journal of Biomedical Science, Vol. 19, No. 1, 5, 10.01.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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