The role of lipid second messengers in aldosterone synthesis and secretion

Shinjini C. Spaulding, Wendy B. Bollag

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Second messengers are small rapidly diffusing molecules or ions that relay signals between receptors and effector proteins to produce a physiological effect. Lipid messengers constitute one of the four major classes of second messengers. The hydrolysis of two main classes of lipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids, generate parallel profiles of lipid second messengers: phosphatidic acid (PA), diacylglycerol (DAG), and lysophosphatidic acid versus ceramide, ceramide-1-phosphate, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate, respectively. In this review, we examine the mechanisms by which these lipid second messengers modulate aldosterone production at multiple levels. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone responsible for maintaining fluid volume, electrolyte balance, and blood pressure homeostasis. Primary aldosteronism is a frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension. A thorough understanding of the signaling events regulating aldosterone biosynthesis may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. The cumulative evidence in this literature emphasizes the critical roles of PA, DAG, and sphingolipid metabolites in aldosterone synthesis and secretion. However, it also highlights the gaps in our knowledge, such as the preference for phospholipase D-generated PA or DAG, as well as the need for further investigation to elucidate the precise mechanisms by which these lipid second messengers regulate optimal aldosterone production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100191
JournalJournal of Lipid Research
Volume64
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Keywords

  • glycerophospholipids
  • intracellular signaling
  • phospholipases
  • primary aldosteronism
  • signal transduction
  • sphingolipids
  • steroidogenesis
  • Supplementary key words adrenal cortex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Cell Biology

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