Transmission of violet and blue light through conventional (layered) and bulk cured resin-based composites

J. E. Harlow, Frederick Rueggeberg, D. Labrie, B. Sullivan, R. B. Price

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives This study measured the transmission of light in the ‘violet’ (350 ≤ λ ≤ 425 nm) and ‘blue’ (425 < λ ≤ 550 nm) spectral ranges from a polywave® LED curing light through different thicknesses of four commercial, resin-based composites (RBCs). Material and methods Samples of conventional layered RBCs (Tetric EvoCeram A2, Filtek Supreme Ultra A2B), and bulk-curing resins (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill IVA, and SureFil SDR Flow U) were prepared. Three samples of each RBC were made at thicknesses of 0.1, 0.7, 1, 2, and 4-mm. The uncured RBC specimens were affixed at the entrance aperture of a 6-inch integrating sphere and light-cured once for 20 s using a polywave® LED curing light (Bluephase G2) on its high power setting. The spectral radiant power transmitted through each RBC in the ‘violet’ and ‘blue’ regions was measured using a fiberoptic spectrometer. Results As RBC thickness increased, an exponential attenuation of transmitted light was measured (R2 > 0.98). Attenuation was greater for the ‘violet’ than for the ‘blue’ spectral regions. At the light tip, the violet light component represented 15.4% of the light output. After passing through 4-mm of RBC, the violet light represented only between 1.2–3.1% of the transmitted light depending on the RBC. Depending on RBC, approximately 100 mW from the Bluephase G2 was transmitted through 0.1-mm of RBC in the ‘violet’ range, falling at most to 11 mW after passing through 2-mm of RBC, and to only 2 mW at 4-mm depth. Conclusions Increasing RBC thickness results in an exponential decrease in light transmission. This attenuation is RBC-dependent with shorter wavelengths (violet) attenuated to a greater extent than longer wavelengths (blue). Clinical relevance Despite the increased translucency of bulk curing RBCs, spectral radiant power shorter than 425 nm from a curing light is unlikely to be effective at a depth of 4-mm or more.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-50
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Dentistry
Volume53
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

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Composite Resins
Light

Keywords

  • Emission spectrum
  • Incremental (layered) vs. bulk filling and bulk curing resins
  • LED curing lights
  • Light transmission through dental resins
  • Product design
  • Restorative dentistry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Transmission of violet and blue light through conventional (layered) and bulk cured resin-based composites. / Harlow, J. E.; Rueggeberg, Frederick; Labrie, D.; Sullivan, B.; Price, R. B.

In: Journal of Dentistry, Vol. 53, 01.10.2016, p. 44-50.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Transmission of violet and blue light through conventional (layered) and bulk cured resin-based composites",
abstract = "Objectives This study measured the transmission of light in the ‘violet’ (350 ≤ λ ≤ 425 nm) and ‘blue’ (425 < λ ≤ 550 nm) spectral ranges from a polywave{\circledR} LED curing light through different thicknesses of four commercial, resin-based composites (RBCs). Material and methods Samples of conventional layered RBCs (Tetric EvoCeram A2, Filtek Supreme Ultra A2B), and bulk-curing resins (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill IVA, and SureFil SDR Flow U) were prepared. Three samples of each RBC were made at thicknesses of 0.1, 0.7, 1, 2, and 4-mm. The uncured RBC specimens were affixed at the entrance aperture of a 6-inch integrating sphere and light-cured once for 20 s using a polywave{\circledR} LED curing light (Bluephase G2) on its high power setting. The spectral radiant power transmitted through each RBC in the ‘violet’ and ‘blue’ regions was measured using a fiberoptic spectrometer. Results As RBC thickness increased, an exponential attenuation of transmitted light was measured (R2 > 0.98). Attenuation was greater for the ‘violet’ than for the ‘blue’ spectral regions. At the light tip, the violet light component represented 15.4{\%} of the light output. After passing through 4-mm of RBC, the violet light represented only between 1.2–3.1{\%} of the transmitted light depending on the RBC. Depending on RBC, approximately 100 mW from the Bluephase G2 was transmitted through 0.1-mm of RBC in the ‘violet’ range, falling at most to 11 mW after passing through 2-mm of RBC, and to only 2 mW at 4-mm depth. Conclusions Increasing RBC thickness results in an exponential decrease in light transmission. This attenuation is RBC-dependent with shorter wavelengths (violet) attenuated to a greater extent than longer wavelengths (blue). Clinical relevance Despite the increased translucency of bulk curing RBCs, spectral radiant power shorter than 425 nm from a curing light is unlikely to be effective at a depth of 4-mm or more.",
keywords = "Emission spectrum, Incremental (layered) vs. bulk filling and bulk curing resins, LED curing lights, Light transmission through dental resins, Product design, Restorative dentistry",
author = "Harlow, {J. E.} and Frederick Rueggeberg and D. Labrie and B. Sullivan and Price, {R. B.}",
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AU - Harlow, J. E.

AU - Rueggeberg, Frederick

AU - Labrie, D.

AU - Sullivan, B.

AU - Price, R. B.

PY - 2016/10/1

Y1 - 2016/10/1

N2 - Objectives This study measured the transmission of light in the ‘violet’ (350 ≤ λ ≤ 425 nm) and ‘blue’ (425 < λ ≤ 550 nm) spectral ranges from a polywave® LED curing light through different thicknesses of four commercial, resin-based composites (RBCs). Material and methods Samples of conventional layered RBCs (Tetric EvoCeram A2, Filtek Supreme Ultra A2B), and bulk-curing resins (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill IVA, and SureFil SDR Flow U) were prepared. Three samples of each RBC were made at thicknesses of 0.1, 0.7, 1, 2, and 4-mm. The uncured RBC specimens were affixed at the entrance aperture of a 6-inch integrating sphere and light-cured once for 20 s using a polywave® LED curing light (Bluephase G2) on its high power setting. The spectral radiant power transmitted through each RBC in the ‘violet’ and ‘blue’ regions was measured using a fiberoptic spectrometer. Results As RBC thickness increased, an exponential attenuation of transmitted light was measured (R2 > 0.98). Attenuation was greater for the ‘violet’ than for the ‘blue’ spectral regions. At the light tip, the violet light component represented 15.4% of the light output. After passing through 4-mm of RBC, the violet light represented only between 1.2–3.1% of the transmitted light depending on the RBC. Depending on RBC, approximately 100 mW from the Bluephase G2 was transmitted through 0.1-mm of RBC in the ‘violet’ range, falling at most to 11 mW after passing through 2-mm of RBC, and to only 2 mW at 4-mm depth. Conclusions Increasing RBC thickness results in an exponential decrease in light transmission. This attenuation is RBC-dependent with shorter wavelengths (violet) attenuated to a greater extent than longer wavelengths (blue). Clinical relevance Despite the increased translucency of bulk curing RBCs, spectral radiant power shorter than 425 nm from a curing light is unlikely to be effective at a depth of 4-mm or more.

AB - Objectives This study measured the transmission of light in the ‘violet’ (350 ≤ λ ≤ 425 nm) and ‘blue’ (425 < λ ≤ 550 nm) spectral ranges from a polywave® LED curing light through different thicknesses of four commercial, resin-based composites (RBCs). Material and methods Samples of conventional layered RBCs (Tetric EvoCeram A2, Filtek Supreme Ultra A2B), and bulk-curing resins (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill IVA, and SureFil SDR Flow U) were prepared. Three samples of each RBC were made at thicknesses of 0.1, 0.7, 1, 2, and 4-mm. The uncured RBC specimens were affixed at the entrance aperture of a 6-inch integrating sphere and light-cured once for 20 s using a polywave® LED curing light (Bluephase G2) on its high power setting. The spectral radiant power transmitted through each RBC in the ‘violet’ and ‘blue’ regions was measured using a fiberoptic spectrometer. Results As RBC thickness increased, an exponential attenuation of transmitted light was measured (R2 > 0.98). Attenuation was greater for the ‘violet’ than for the ‘blue’ spectral regions. At the light tip, the violet light component represented 15.4% of the light output. After passing through 4-mm of RBC, the violet light represented only between 1.2–3.1% of the transmitted light depending on the RBC. Depending on RBC, approximately 100 mW from the Bluephase G2 was transmitted through 0.1-mm of RBC in the ‘violet’ range, falling at most to 11 mW after passing through 2-mm of RBC, and to only 2 mW at 4-mm depth. Conclusions Increasing RBC thickness results in an exponential decrease in light transmission. This attenuation is RBC-dependent with shorter wavelengths (violet) attenuated to a greater extent than longer wavelengths (blue). Clinical relevance Despite the increased translucency of bulk curing RBCs, spectral radiant power shorter than 425 nm from a curing light is unlikely to be effective at a depth of 4-mm or more.

KW - Emission spectrum

KW - Incremental (layered) vs. bulk filling and bulk curing resins

KW - LED curing lights

KW - Light transmission through dental resins

KW - Product design

KW - Restorative dentistry

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