Twenty-five years of violence: The epidemiology of terrorism in South America

Amado Alejandro Báez, Matthew D. Sztajnkrycer, Richard Zane, Ediza Giráldez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Terrorism is a global public health burden. South Americans have been victims of terrorism for many decades.While the causes vary, the results are the same: death, disability, and suffering.The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive, epidemiological, descriptive study of terrorist incidents in South America.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data from January 1971 to July 2006 was selected using the RAND Terrorism Chronology 1968-1997 and RAND®-Memorial Institute for Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) Terrorism Incident database (1998-Present). Statistical significance was set at 0.05.Results: The database reported a total of 2,997 incidents in South American countries that resulted in 3,435 victims with injuries (1.15 per incident) and 1,973 fatalities (0.66 per incident). The overall case fatality ratio (CFR) was 35.8%. Colombia had the majority of incidents with 57.9% (1,734 of 2,997), followed by Peru with 363 (12.1%), and Argentina with 267 (8.9%). The highest individual CFR occurred in Paraguay (83.3%), and the lowest in Chile with 4.8%. Of the total injuries and deaths, Colombia had 66.1% (2,269 of 2,997) of all injuries and 75.2% (1,443 out of 1,920) of all deaths. Living in the country of Colombia was associated with a 16 times greater likelihood of becoming a victim of terrorist violence [odds ratio (OR) 16.15; 95% CI 13.45 to 19.40; p <0.0001].The predominant method of choice for terrorist incidents was the use of conventional explosives with 2,543 of 2,883 incidents (88.2%).Conclusions: Terrorist incidents in South America have accounted for nearly 2,000 deaths, with conventional explosive devices as the predominant method of choice. Understanding the nature of terrorist attacks and the medical consequences assist emergency preparedness and disaster management officials in allocating resources and preparing for potential future events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)128-132
Number of pages5
JournalPrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Volume23
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Terrorism
South America
Violence
Epidemiology
Colombia
Wounds and Injuries
Paraguay
Databases
Civil Defense
Chronology
Peru
Chile
Argentina
Disasters
Epidemiologic Studies
Public Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Odds Ratio
Equipment and Supplies

Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • injuries
  • Latin America
  • South America
  • terrorism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency

Cite this

Twenty-five years of violence : The epidemiology of terrorism in South America. / Báez, Amado Alejandro; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D.; Zane, Richard; Giráldez, Ediza.

In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 2, 01.01.2008, p. 128-132.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Báez, Amado Alejandro ; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D. ; Zane, Richard ; Giráldez, Ediza. / Twenty-five years of violence : The epidemiology of terrorism in South America. In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 2008 ; Vol. 23, No. 2. pp. 128-132.
@article{4b13d0ac0bac4068b72ddf378bd0eeae,
title = "Twenty-five years of violence: The epidemiology of terrorism in South America",
abstract = "Introduction: Terrorism is a global public health burden. South Americans have been victims of terrorism for many decades.While the causes vary, the results are the same: death, disability, and suffering.The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive, epidemiological, descriptive study of terrorist incidents in South America.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data from January 1971 to July 2006 was selected using the RAND Terrorism Chronology 1968-1997 and RAND{\circledR}-Memorial Institute for Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) Terrorism Incident database (1998-Present). Statistical significance was set at 0.05.Results: The database reported a total of 2,997 incidents in South American countries that resulted in 3,435 victims with injuries (1.15 per incident) and 1,973 fatalities (0.66 per incident). The overall case fatality ratio (CFR) was 35.8{\%}. Colombia had the majority of incidents with 57.9{\%} (1,734 of 2,997), followed by Peru with 363 (12.1{\%}), and Argentina with 267 (8.9{\%}). The highest individual CFR occurred in Paraguay (83.3{\%}), and the lowest in Chile with 4.8{\%}. Of the total injuries and deaths, Colombia had 66.1{\%} (2,269 of 2,997) of all injuries and 75.2{\%} (1,443 out of 1,920) of all deaths. Living in the country of Colombia was associated with a 16 times greater likelihood of becoming a victim of terrorist violence [odds ratio (OR) 16.15; 95{\%} CI 13.45 to 19.40; p <0.0001].The predominant method of choice for terrorist incidents was the use of conventional explosives with 2,543 of 2,883 incidents (88.2{\%}).Conclusions: Terrorist incidents in South America have accounted for nearly 2,000 deaths, with conventional explosive devices as the predominant method of choice. Understanding the nature of terrorist attacks and the medical consequences assist emergency preparedness and disaster management officials in allocating resources and preparing for potential future events.",
keywords = "epidemiology, injuries, Latin America, South America, terrorism",
author = "B{\'a}ez, {Amado Alejandro} and Sztajnkrycer, {Matthew D.} and Richard Zane and Ediza Gir{\'a}ldez",
year = "2008",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1017/S1049023X00005732",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "23",
pages = "128--132",
journal = "Prehospital and Disaster Medicine",
issn = "1049-023X",
publisher = "World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Twenty-five years of violence

T2 - The epidemiology of terrorism in South America

AU - Báez, Amado Alejandro

AU - Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D.

AU - Zane, Richard

AU - Giráldez, Ediza

PY - 2008/1/1

Y1 - 2008/1/1

N2 - Introduction: Terrorism is a global public health burden. South Americans have been victims of terrorism for many decades.While the causes vary, the results are the same: death, disability, and suffering.The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive, epidemiological, descriptive study of terrorist incidents in South America.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data from January 1971 to July 2006 was selected using the RAND Terrorism Chronology 1968-1997 and RAND®-Memorial Institute for Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) Terrorism Incident database (1998-Present). Statistical significance was set at 0.05.Results: The database reported a total of 2,997 incidents in South American countries that resulted in 3,435 victims with injuries (1.15 per incident) and 1,973 fatalities (0.66 per incident). The overall case fatality ratio (CFR) was 35.8%. Colombia had the majority of incidents with 57.9% (1,734 of 2,997), followed by Peru with 363 (12.1%), and Argentina with 267 (8.9%). The highest individual CFR occurred in Paraguay (83.3%), and the lowest in Chile with 4.8%. Of the total injuries and deaths, Colombia had 66.1% (2,269 of 2,997) of all injuries and 75.2% (1,443 out of 1,920) of all deaths. Living in the country of Colombia was associated with a 16 times greater likelihood of becoming a victim of terrorist violence [odds ratio (OR) 16.15; 95% CI 13.45 to 19.40; p <0.0001].The predominant method of choice for terrorist incidents was the use of conventional explosives with 2,543 of 2,883 incidents (88.2%).Conclusions: Terrorist incidents in South America have accounted for nearly 2,000 deaths, with conventional explosive devices as the predominant method of choice. Understanding the nature of terrorist attacks and the medical consequences assist emergency preparedness and disaster management officials in allocating resources and preparing for potential future events.

AB - Introduction: Terrorism is a global public health burden. South Americans have been victims of terrorism for many decades.While the causes vary, the results are the same: death, disability, and suffering.The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive, epidemiological, descriptive study of terrorist incidents in South America.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data from January 1971 to July 2006 was selected using the RAND Terrorism Chronology 1968-1997 and RAND®-Memorial Institute for Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) Terrorism Incident database (1998-Present). Statistical significance was set at 0.05.Results: The database reported a total of 2,997 incidents in South American countries that resulted in 3,435 victims with injuries (1.15 per incident) and 1,973 fatalities (0.66 per incident). The overall case fatality ratio (CFR) was 35.8%. Colombia had the majority of incidents with 57.9% (1,734 of 2,997), followed by Peru with 363 (12.1%), and Argentina with 267 (8.9%). The highest individual CFR occurred in Paraguay (83.3%), and the lowest in Chile with 4.8%. Of the total injuries and deaths, Colombia had 66.1% (2,269 of 2,997) of all injuries and 75.2% (1,443 out of 1,920) of all deaths. Living in the country of Colombia was associated with a 16 times greater likelihood of becoming a victim of terrorist violence [odds ratio (OR) 16.15; 95% CI 13.45 to 19.40; p <0.0001].The predominant method of choice for terrorist incidents was the use of conventional explosives with 2,543 of 2,883 incidents (88.2%).Conclusions: Terrorist incidents in South America have accounted for nearly 2,000 deaths, with conventional explosive devices as the predominant method of choice. Understanding the nature of terrorist attacks and the medical consequences assist emergency preparedness and disaster management officials in allocating resources and preparing for potential future events.

KW - epidemiology

KW - injuries

KW - Latin America

KW - South America

KW - terrorism

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79958244381&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79958244381&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/S1049023X00005732

DO - 10.1017/S1049023X00005732

M3 - Article

C2 - 18557292

AN - SCOPUS:79958244381

VL - 23

SP - 128

EP - 132

JO - Prehospital and Disaster Medicine

JF - Prehospital and Disaster Medicine

SN - 1049-023X

IS - 2

ER -