Uncoupling protein-2 is an antioxidant that is up-regulated in the enamel organ of fluoride-treated rats

Maiko Suzuki, Megan L. Sierant, Jerry V. Antone, Eric T. Everett, Gary M. Whitford, John D. Bartlett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Dental fluorosis is characterized by subsurface hypomineralization and retention of enamel matrix proteins. Fluoride (F-) exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress. We therefore screened oxidative stress arrays to identify genes regulated by F- exposure. Vitamin E is an antioxidant so we asked if a diet high in vitamin E would attenuate dental fluorosis. Maturation stage incisor enamel organs (EO) were harvested from F--treated rats and mice were assessed to determine if vitamin E ameliorates dental fluorosis. Uncoupling protein-2 (Ucp2) was significantly up-regulated by F- (∼1.5 & 2.0 fold for the 50 or 100 ppm F- treatment groups, respectively). Immunohistochemical results on maturation stage rat incisors demonstrated that UCP2 protein levels increased with F- treatment. UCP2 down-regulates mitochondrial production of ROS, which decreases ATP production. Thus, in addition to reduced protein translation caused by ER-stress, a reduction in ATP production by UCP2 may contribute to the inability of ameloblasts to remove protein from the hardening enamel. Fluoride-treated mouse enamel had significantly higher quantitative fluorescence (QF) than the untreated controls. No significant QF difference was observed between control and vitamin E-enriched diets within a given F- treatment group. Therefore, a diet rich in vitamin E did not attenuate dental fluorosis. We have identified a novel oxidative stress response gene that is up-regulated in vivo by F - and activation of this gene may adversely affect ameloblast function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-28
Number of pages4
JournalConnective Tissue Research
Volume55
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

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Keywords

  • Enamel
  • Fluoride
  • Fluorosis
  • Oxidative stress
  • UCP2
  • Vitamin E

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Biochemistry
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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