Variations in Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness during the Cardiac Cycle in Children

Spencer Menees, Danna Zhang, Joseph Le, Jie Chen, Geetha Raghuveer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: There is paucity of research looking at variations in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) during the cardiac cycle in children. The aim of this study was to ascertain variations, if any, in CIMT during the cardiac cycle in a population of high-risk children. Methods: Forty-nine children aged 6 to 19 years with dyslipidemia and other atherosclerosis-promoting risk factors underwent a carotid ultrasound. CIMT was measured using commercially available, semiautomated edge-detection software. The region of interest was the far wall of the common carotid artery. CIMT was measured at various points during the cardiac cycle using the electrocardiogram (EKG) as a reference. CIMT measurements two frames before, during, and after the QRS complex (end diastole) were analyzed separately (designated as "QRS CIMT") from the other CIMT measurements (designated as "non-QRS CIMT"). Demographics, heart rate, blood pressure, anthropometric measures, lumen diameter, family history, and presence of other atherosclerosis-promoting risk factors were documented. Results: "QRS CIMT" was significantly thicker than "non-QRS CIMT" (P = .01), with the age group 10 to 14 years showing the most significant variation between "QRS CIMT" and "non-QRS CIMT" (P = .005). CIMT values between right and left carotid arteries differed by 2.5%. Age, systolic blood pressure, and blood glucose were significant predictors of mean CIMT by simple linear regression; systolic blood pressure was the only significant predictor of mean CIMT by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusion: CIMT measurements vary during the cardiac cycle in children. It is thicker during the QRS complex on EKG. Carotid ultrasound should be performed with an EKG, and CIMT should be measured at the same point on the EKG to overcome this variation. Furthermore, we recommend that CIMT be measured at the R-wave on EKG because this is an easily discernible point in the cardiac cycle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-63
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Carotid Arteries
Electrocardiography
Blood Pressure
Linear Models
Atherosclerosis
Diastole

Keywords

  • Cardiac cycle
  • Carotid artery intima-media thickness
  • Carotid artery ultrasound
  • Children
  • Electrocardiogram

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Variations in Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness during the Cardiac Cycle in Children. / Menees, Spencer; Zhang, Danna; Le, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Raghuveer, Geetha.

In: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, Vol. 23, No. 1, 01.01.2010, p. 58-63.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Menees, Spencer ; Zhang, Danna ; Le, Joseph ; Chen, Jie ; Raghuveer, Geetha. / Variations in Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness during the Cardiac Cycle in Children. In: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 2010 ; Vol. 23, No. 1. pp. 58-63.
@article{4b419c74604f46a185e2a9883b791121,
title = "Variations in Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness during the Cardiac Cycle in Children",
abstract = "Background: There is paucity of research looking at variations in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) during the cardiac cycle in children. The aim of this study was to ascertain variations, if any, in CIMT during the cardiac cycle in a population of high-risk children. Methods: Forty-nine children aged 6 to 19 years with dyslipidemia and other atherosclerosis-promoting risk factors underwent a carotid ultrasound. CIMT was measured using commercially available, semiautomated edge-detection software. The region of interest was the far wall of the common carotid artery. CIMT was measured at various points during the cardiac cycle using the electrocardiogram (EKG) as a reference. CIMT measurements two frames before, during, and after the QRS complex (end diastole) were analyzed separately (designated as {"}QRS CIMT{"}) from the other CIMT measurements (designated as {"}non-QRS CIMT{"}). Demographics, heart rate, blood pressure, anthropometric measures, lumen diameter, family history, and presence of other atherosclerosis-promoting risk factors were documented. Results: {"}QRS CIMT{"} was significantly thicker than {"}non-QRS CIMT{"} (P = .01), with the age group 10 to 14 years showing the most significant variation between {"}QRS CIMT{"} and {"}non-QRS CIMT{"} (P = .005). CIMT values between right and left carotid arteries differed by 2.5{\%}. Age, systolic blood pressure, and blood glucose were significant predictors of mean CIMT by simple linear regression; systolic blood pressure was the only significant predictor of mean CIMT by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusion: CIMT measurements vary during the cardiac cycle in children. It is thicker during the QRS complex on EKG. Carotid ultrasound should be performed with an EKG, and CIMT should be measured at the same point on the EKG to overcome this variation. Furthermore, we recommend that CIMT be measured at the R-wave on EKG because this is an easily discernible point in the cardiac cycle.",
keywords = "Cardiac cycle, Carotid artery intima-media thickness, Carotid artery ultrasound, Children, Electrocardiogram",
author = "Spencer Menees and Danna Zhang and Joseph Le and Jie Chen and Geetha Raghuveer",
year = "2010",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.echo.2009.10.016",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "23",
pages = "58--63",
journal = "Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography",
issn = "0894-7317",
publisher = "Mosby Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Variations in Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness during the Cardiac Cycle in Children

AU - Menees, Spencer

AU - Zhang, Danna

AU - Le, Joseph

AU - Chen, Jie

AU - Raghuveer, Geetha

PY - 2010/1/1

Y1 - 2010/1/1

N2 - Background: There is paucity of research looking at variations in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) during the cardiac cycle in children. The aim of this study was to ascertain variations, if any, in CIMT during the cardiac cycle in a population of high-risk children. Methods: Forty-nine children aged 6 to 19 years with dyslipidemia and other atherosclerosis-promoting risk factors underwent a carotid ultrasound. CIMT was measured using commercially available, semiautomated edge-detection software. The region of interest was the far wall of the common carotid artery. CIMT was measured at various points during the cardiac cycle using the electrocardiogram (EKG) as a reference. CIMT measurements two frames before, during, and after the QRS complex (end diastole) were analyzed separately (designated as "QRS CIMT") from the other CIMT measurements (designated as "non-QRS CIMT"). Demographics, heart rate, blood pressure, anthropometric measures, lumen diameter, family history, and presence of other atherosclerosis-promoting risk factors were documented. Results: "QRS CIMT" was significantly thicker than "non-QRS CIMT" (P = .01), with the age group 10 to 14 years showing the most significant variation between "QRS CIMT" and "non-QRS CIMT" (P = .005). CIMT values between right and left carotid arteries differed by 2.5%. Age, systolic blood pressure, and blood glucose were significant predictors of mean CIMT by simple linear regression; systolic blood pressure was the only significant predictor of mean CIMT by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusion: CIMT measurements vary during the cardiac cycle in children. It is thicker during the QRS complex on EKG. Carotid ultrasound should be performed with an EKG, and CIMT should be measured at the same point on the EKG to overcome this variation. Furthermore, we recommend that CIMT be measured at the R-wave on EKG because this is an easily discernible point in the cardiac cycle.

AB - Background: There is paucity of research looking at variations in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) during the cardiac cycle in children. The aim of this study was to ascertain variations, if any, in CIMT during the cardiac cycle in a population of high-risk children. Methods: Forty-nine children aged 6 to 19 years with dyslipidemia and other atherosclerosis-promoting risk factors underwent a carotid ultrasound. CIMT was measured using commercially available, semiautomated edge-detection software. The region of interest was the far wall of the common carotid artery. CIMT was measured at various points during the cardiac cycle using the electrocardiogram (EKG) as a reference. CIMT measurements two frames before, during, and after the QRS complex (end diastole) were analyzed separately (designated as "QRS CIMT") from the other CIMT measurements (designated as "non-QRS CIMT"). Demographics, heart rate, blood pressure, anthropometric measures, lumen diameter, family history, and presence of other atherosclerosis-promoting risk factors were documented. Results: "QRS CIMT" was significantly thicker than "non-QRS CIMT" (P = .01), with the age group 10 to 14 years showing the most significant variation between "QRS CIMT" and "non-QRS CIMT" (P = .005). CIMT values between right and left carotid arteries differed by 2.5%. Age, systolic blood pressure, and blood glucose were significant predictors of mean CIMT by simple linear regression; systolic blood pressure was the only significant predictor of mean CIMT by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusion: CIMT measurements vary during the cardiac cycle in children. It is thicker during the QRS complex on EKG. Carotid ultrasound should be performed with an EKG, and CIMT should be measured at the same point on the EKG to overcome this variation. Furthermore, we recommend that CIMT be measured at the R-wave on EKG because this is an easily discernible point in the cardiac cycle.

KW - Cardiac cycle

KW - Carotid artery intima-media thickness

KW - Carotid artery ultrasound

KW - Children

KW - Electrocardiogram

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=72449145505&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=72449145505&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.echo.2009.10.016

DO - 10.1016/j.echo.2009.10.016

M3 - Article

C2 - 19962856

AN - SCOPUS:72449145505

VL - 23

SP - 58

EP - 63

JO - Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography

JF - Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography

SN - 0894-7317

IS - 1

ER -